The Illyrian Coastal Exploration Program (2010-2012): The Roman and Late-Roman Finds and Their Contexts
Maritime archaeological work in the eastern Adriatic is coalesced for analysis and presented for publication under a unified the research initiative of the Illyrian Coastal Exploration Program (ICEP). One underlying premise for combining research of disparate modern countries is the historically more unified eastern Adriatic coast linked by a common sea route. A primary goal of the ICEP is to bring together numerous research institutes in an effort to investigate the eastern Adriatic coast. At the core of this program is a survey of the littoral region of the coastline. A corollary goal of the ICEP is to systematically document, record, and study all submerged cultural material in the littoral zone and provide a data set for the archives of each respective government. As the majority of maritime archaeology has taken place through diver investigation, the vast majority of the littoral zone along all coasts in the Mediterranean remain unexplored. The coasts of Albania and Montenegro have received particularly less archaeological investigation compared to other areas of the Mediterranean. The investigation under the ICEP strives to address this deficit in archaeological data for the eastern Adriatic coastline. This article is the second on this material, and will examine the finds from the 2010-12 field seasons and relate them to the research questions raised in the previous publication from this program.
The Illyrian Coastal Exploration Program (2007-12): Finds and Their Contexts Between the 6th and 3rd Century BCE
J. Royal and S. James
Data gathered along the previously unexplored coasts of Albania and Montenegro addresses a wide range of archaeological research topics including colonization, overseas exchange routes, trade connections, and artifact distributions. These systematic littoral surveys are the first such fieldwork on these sections of the ancient Illyrian coast. This article focuses on the finds from the Greek Archaic through Hellenistic eras and uses the evidence to argue that the Illyrian coast was a developing economy prior to Roman administration and that the coastal areas witnessed rapid economic development with the advent of Corinthian interaction. There is also evidence that the nature of overseas trade spheres over time that are tied to overseas shipping. The ongoing goal of the Illyrian Coastal Exploration Program (ICEP) is to systematically document, record and study all submerged cultural material in the littoral zone and provide a dataset for the archives of each respective government.
The Illyrian Coastal Exploration Program: The 2012 Croatian Survey
L. Bekić and J. Royal
In 2012 a joint project survey was conducted along a portion of the southern Croatian coast. The survey, part of the Illyrian Coastal Exploration Program, produced wrecksites from a wide range of eras, and included one each from the Byzantine and Post-Medieval eras. Recording and artifact sampling of the sites conducted during field operations. In addition to several modern sites documented two wrecksites, of the Byzantine and a Medieval eras, were located and underwent preliminary examination. This paper will provide a description of the sites and their artifacts, and place them in historical context.
Distinctive Markets and Goods: Vaulting Tube Consignments in Overseas Trade
Vaulting tubes, or tubi fittili, were a ceramic construction material, like to bricks and tiles, which were used almost exclusively for the construction of vaults and arches. These hollow tubes were designed such that the tapering nozzle of one fit into the round end of another; once nested together in this manner they formed the shapes of vaults and arches. They were first nested to one another without mortar in the desired shape, then taken down and reassembled with mortar in order to secure them in the desired shape of the form. Afterwards, concrete was poured atop the completed form and the interior was covered with plaster. Both the origins of vaulting tubes in architecture and their resurgence in the Roman Imperial period are important research questions, but beyond the scope of this paper. For the purposes of this paper, the evidence from the Levanzo I wrecksite will be placed into the Roman economic context as well as similar shipwreck sites in order to address questions on the development and distribution of vaulting tubes in the Imperial period.